Creating Lesson Plans: Goals and Objectives

Module 2: Goals and Objectives

By the end of this lesson you will be able to:

  • State the ABCD’s of Objectives
  • Relate the ABCD’s of Objectives to your current method of writing objectives
  • Apply the ABCD’s of Objectives to technology standards
  • Compose effective technology based learning objectives for your lesson plans.

Creating a lesson plan which integrates technology starts just like any other lesson plan with creating  goals and objectives.  You will determine what  the students are going to learn (goal) and how you can measure that (objective).  Keeping those two things in mind, it is important to note that as teachers we should strive to push our students to higher-order thinking skills (HOTS).  We can use  Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives to help us reach those HOTS.  Within Bloom’s taxonomy there are six levels:knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, creating and evaluation. HOTS are those skills in the top three levels: analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. These three skill levels are important in critical thinking.  It is worth noting that though the levels of Bloom’s taxonomy do not change when we integrate technology in our teaching, the way in which we approach the content does and as a result the activities our students complete also change.

Review this about Bloom’s Digital Taxonomy


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_DLybFxTptI

Bloom’s Digital Taxonomy
Andrew Churches explains that this “is an update to Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy which attempts to account for the new behaviours and actions emerging as technology advances and becomes more ubiquitous. Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy describes many traditional classroom practices, behaviours and actions, but does not account for the new processes and actions associated with Web 2.0 technologies, infowhelm (the exponential growth in information), increasing ubiquitous personal technologies or cloud computing.

Bloom’s Digital Taxonomy

Is not:  about the tools or technologies

It is:  about using tools and technologies to facilitate learning.

Outcomes on rubrics are measured by competence of use and most importantly the quality of the process or product. For example, bookmarking a resource is of no value if the resource is inappropriate, invalid, out of date or inaccurate.

Review these links for additional information on Bloom’s Digital taxonomy

  1. Bloom’s Digital Taxonomy: PDF, Wiki
  2. Visual Flow Chart of Bloom’s Verbs to Activity Verbs
  3. Visual Bloom’s
  4. Bloom’s Taxonomy and Higher-Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)

Writing Goals with Technology in Mind
When creating your goals for the lesson, it is important to understand that technology doesn’t change the goals for a lesson, but it helps students  reach those goals.  Technology is not an end all solution, but a tool in the path to learning.
“Computers aren’t the thing, they are the thing that gets us to the thing” – Halt and Catch Fire
When writing lesson goals, make it easy on yourself. Refer to  the National and State Standards for both content and technology to help guide you.  They give you a great list of things the students should know and be able to do.

Writing Objectives with Technology in Mind
Writing objectives around Bloom’s Taxonomy is not a new practice in teaching.  And we don’t want this to feel like something completely new or like a review of something you’ve seen a hundred times.  “With great power comes great responsibility” is a quote we have all seen, but it holds true here.  Students have been given the power of the Internet and the vast amounts of tools associated with it. It is our job as teachers to incorporate those into our lessons and do so on a level that makes the best use of the tools available.

You may have your own way of writing objectives, but as you start to incorporate technology and the procedures that go with using these tools in the classroom, it is easy to get lost in the planning process. The objectives are very important.  They are the driving force, the road map behind the lesson, and as a result everything needs to be aligned with your objectives.  To help make alignment easier, we suggest using the ABCD’s of Writing Objectives.

  • The A, or Audience, is usually referring to your students.  However, in the event of needing to differentiate your lessons, it would be important to note which groups are responsible for which objectives.

  • The B, or Behavior, will define what we want students to accomplish. This will be the overall reaching goal for the lesson. By selecting one of the verbs from the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy list, you can ensure your students reach the appropriate level of Bloom’s for the lesson.

  • The C, or the Condition, determines the parameters for the goal.  What will the students be given to work with?  What is the context? What is the time frame?   Ex: The students will be working with Powerpoint, in pairs.

  • The D, or Degree, is where we set the measurements  to our goal.  How will we measure student success?  What score is passing and what means review work?  Ex: With 90% accuracy, With less than 10 mistakes.

Review this short informative video about writing objectives using the ABCD format  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6b9ahqnC8Xc

For further help and to learn more about the ABCD format click here.

Goals and Objectives Alignment
When writing objectives it is important to keep in mind how you will align the objectives to the lesson. Everything starts with the objectives. Strong objectives will set the tone for the lesson planning.

Consider these questions:

  • How will the assignment or activity reflect the Bloom’s verb chosen in the objective?
  • How will the assessment actually asses the level of Bloom’s used in the assignment the students completed?

The goals, objectives, activities, and assessment must align.

Additional Resources for Planning
For additional resources and information visit these links:

  1. Traditional Approaches and Digital Alternatives
  2. Bloom’s Action Verbs
  3. Mike Fisher’s Critical Thinking Guide

References:
Dr. Mims’s Site
Video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6b9ahqnC8Xc
Penn State website http://ets.tlt.psu.edu/learningdesign/objectives/writingobjectives

Possible extra resources
http://www.cmu.edu/teaching/assessment/basics/alignment.html
http://assessment.uconn.edu/docs/HowToWriteObjectivesOutcomes.pdf